Unlike Jean Piaget who watched children's play in largely intellectual or cognitive terms, Parten highlighted the idea that learning to play is learning how to relate to other people. As children grow and develop, play evolves. Certain types of play are related to particular age groups, although all kinds of play occur at any age. Play is the way children interact and learn more about the world, and different kinds of play are needed to fully engage a child's social, physical, and cognitive development.
1. Unoccupied play
Generally found from birth to approximately three months, babies busy themselves with unoccupied play. Babies appear to make arbitrary movements with no clear purpose, and may appear to only be observing, but this really is the first form of enjoying.
2. Solitary play
From three to 18 months, children will spend much of the time playing by themselves. During solitary play, kids do not seem to notice other kids playing or sitting nearby. They are exploring their own planet by watching, touching and grabbing objects. They could frequently become deeply immersed in the activity,"tuning out" the world around them. Solitary play begins in infancy and is common in toddlers. But, it is important for all age groups to have time for lonely play.
3. Onlooker play
Onlooker play happens most frequently throughout the toddler years. A child watches other kids play and acquires new language skills through observation and listening, while learning how to interact with others. Although kids may ask questions of other children or make remarks, there's absolutely no effort to join the drama. This type of play generally begins during toddler years but can take place at any given age.
4. Parallel play
From the age of 18 months to 2 years, children begin to play alongside other children, often mimicking them, but without any interaction. Parallel play provides young children with opportunities for role-playing. It also helps children get the understanding of the notion of property ownership, including the idea of what is"theirs" and what goes to"others."
Additionally, this is when they start to reveal their need to be together with other kids their own age. Parallel play is generally found with toddlers, though it occurs in any age group.
5. Associative play
When children are about three to four decades old, they become more interested in other children than their own toys. Kids start interacting
with other kids. Associative play is when the kid is considering the folks playing but maybe not in coordinating their actions with those people, or perhaps necessarily organizing their actions in any way. During associative play, children within the team have similar objectives. But, they don't set rules and there's not any formal association.
6. Social/cooperative play
Children around the age of three are beginning to interact with other kids. They are interested in both the kids around themand in the activities they're doing. By interacting with other children in play preferences, a child learns social rules such as give-and-take and collaboration. Kids begin to discuss toys and ideas, and follow established rules and guidelines. They start to learn how to use moral reasoning to develop a sense of values. Activities are coordinated and participants have delegated roles. Group identities might emerge, much like make-believe games.
Beyond Parten's Stages, play can also be clarified from these extra categories or kinds of activities kids can participate in during play.
When children run, jump, and play games like hide-and-seek and tag, they are engaging in physical drama. Physical play offers a chance for children to develop muscular strength, coordination, and exercise and develop their own bodies appropriately, while keeping healthy weight. Children also learn to take turns and accept losing or winning.
8. Constructive Play
Within this type of drama, kids construct and make things. Constructive play starts in infancy and becomes even more complicated as your child develops. As a toddler, children begin building things with blocks or stacking toys, drawing or stacking loose parts like wood or pinecones around the indoor playground sale
. Throughout constructive play, children explore objects, find patterns, and problem solve, to discover what works and what doesn't. They gain confidence manipulating objects, and exercise producing ideas and working with numbers and theories.
9. Expressive Play
Children learn how to express emotions and feelings during play. Art, music, and writing help kids develop creativity and symbolic communication through play.
10. Fantasy / Dramatic PlayChildren
learn how to create and envision beyond their entire world through fantasy play. They might assume adult roles and learn to think in abstract ways. Children stretch their imaginations and use new words and numbers to communicate theories, imaginations and historic concepts. Children can re-enact scenarios, experiment with languages, and learn to express emotions during fantasy play. They're also able to work out psychological issues by projecting them onto a dream situation.
11. Competitive Play
Aggressive play begins from the late preschool period. The play is organized by group goals and established rules. There's at least one chief, and children are definitely in or outside of the group.
Kids are moving out of a self-centered world to an awareness of the importance of social interactions and principles. Part of the development occurs when they know games like Tag, Follow the Leader, Simon Says, and group sports.
When children play digital video games or computer-based learning programs, they are engaging in a form of solitary play. There's no social interaction or effects. If excessive, virtual play frequently negatively affects a child's executive function and social skills, such as eye contact and attention span.
It's important to allow children to engage in all these types of play due to their general psychological, intellectual, and physical development. A number of these types of play will begin in the house, but some types can only begin in pre-schools, rehab centers, or outside in public parks and on the playground. Ensure your child's well-being by imagining which styles of play have to be introduced at home, and provide them the opportunity to grow by visiting your local park or park.